From Quantification to Visualization: A Taxonomy of Uncertainty Visualization Approaches K. Potter, P. Rosen, C.R. Johnson. In Uncertainty Quantification in Scientific Computing, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology Series, Vol. 377, Edited by Andrew Dienstfrey and Ronald Boisvert, Springer, pp. 226--249. 2012. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-32677-6_15 Quantifying uncertainty is an increasingly important topic across many domains. The uncertainties present in data come with many diverse representations having originated from a wide variety of domains. Communicating these uncertainties is a task often left to visualization without clear connection between the quantification and visualization. In this paper, we first identify frequently occurring types of uncertainty. Second, we connect those uncertainty representations to ones commonly used in visualization. We then look at various approaches to visualizing this uncertainty by partitioning the work based on the dimensionality of the data and the dimensionality of the uncertainty. We also discuss noteworthy exceptions to our taxonomy along with future research directions for the uncertainty visualization community. Keywords: scidac, netl, uncertainty visualization |
FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research Y. Wan, H. Otsuna, C.-B. Chien, C.D. Hansen. In Proceedings of Pacific Vis 2012, Incheon, Korea, pp. 201--208. 2012. DOI: 10.1109/PacificVis.2012.6183592 2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. Keywords: scidac |
Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields G. Chen, V. Kwatra, L.-Y. Wei, C.D. Hansen, E. Zhang. In IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics TVCG, Vol. 18, No. 10, pp. 1717--1730. 2012. DOI: 10.1109/TVCG.2011.290 |
Understanding Quasi-Periodic Fieldlines and Their Topology in Toroidal Magnetic Fields A.R. Sanderson, G. Chen, X. Tricoche, E. Cohen. In Topological Methods in Data Analysis and Visualization II, Edited by R. Peikert and H. Carr and H. Hauser and R. Fuchs, Springer, pp. 125--140. 2012. DOI: 10.1007/478-3-642-23175-9 |
Mesh-Driven Vector Field Clustering and Visualization: An Image-Based Approach Z. Peng, E. Grundy, R.S. Laramee, G. Chen, N. Croft. In IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2011, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 283--298. February, 2012. DOI: 10.1109/TVCG.2011.25 Vector field visualization techniques have evolved very rapidly over the last two decades, however, visualizing vector fields on complex boundary surfaces from computational flow dynamics (CFD) still remains a challenging task. In part, this is due to the large, unstructured, adaptive resolution characteristics of the meshes used in the modeling and simulation process. Out of the wide variety of existing flow field visualization techniques, vector field clustering algorithms offer the advantage of capturing a detailed picture of important areas of the domain while presenting a simplified view of areas of less importance. This paper presents a novel, robust, automatic vector field clustering algorithm that produces intuitive and insightful images of vector fields on large, unstructured, adaptive resolution boundary meshes from CFD. Our bottom-up, hierarchical approach is the first to combine the properties of the underlying vector field and mesh into a unified error-driven representation. The motivation behind the approach is the fact that CFD engineers may increase the resolution of model meshes according to importance. The algorithm has several advantages. Clusters are generated automatically, no surface parameterization is required, and large meshes are processed efficiently. The most suggestive and important information contained in the meshes and vector fields is preserved while less important areas are simplified in the visualization. Users can interactively control the level of detail by adjusting a range of clustering distance measure parameters. We describe two data structures to accelerate the clustering process. We also introduce novel visualizations of clusters inspired by statistical methods. We apply our method to a series of synthetic and complex, real-world CFD meshes to demonstrate the clustering algorithm results. Keywords: Vector Field Visualization, Clustering, Feature-based, Surfaces |
Simplification of Node Position Data for Interactive Visualization of Dynamic Datasets P. Rosen, V. Popescu. In IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (IEEE Visweek 2012 TVCG Track), pp. 1537--1548. 2012. PubMed ID: 22025753 PubMed Central ID: PMC3411892 We propose to aid the interactive visualization of time-varying spatial datasets by simplifying node position data over the entire simulation as opposed to over individual states. Our approach is based on two observations. The first observation is that the trajectory of some nodes can be approximated well without recording the position of the node for every state. The second observation is that there are groups of nodes whose motion from one state to the next can be approximated well with a single transformation. We present dataset simplification techniques that take advantage of this node data redundancy. Our techniques are general, supporting many types of simulations, they achieve good compression factors, and they allow rigorous control of the maximum node position approximation error. We demonstrate our approach in the context of finite element analysis data, of liquid flow simulation data, and of fusion simulation data. |
Atrial Fibrillation R.S. MacLeod, J.J.E. Blauer. In Multimodal Cardiovascular Imaging: Principles and Clinical Applications, Ch. 25, Edited by O. Pahlm and G. Wagner, McGraw Hill, 2011. ISBN: 0071613463 Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia so that a review of the role imaging in AF is a natural topic to include in this book. Further motivation comes from the fact that the treatment of AF probably includes more different forms of imaging, often merged or combined in a variety of ways, than perhaps any other clinical intervention. A typical clinical electrophysiology lab for the treatment of AF usually contains no less than 6 and often more than 8 individual monitors, each rendering some form of image based information about the patient undergoing therapy. There is naturally great motivation to merge different images and different imaging modalities in the setting of AF but also very challenging because of a host of factors related to the small size, extremely thin walls, the large natural variation in atrial shape, and the fact that fibrillation is occurring so that atrial shape is changing rapidly and irregularly. Thus, the use of multimodal imaging has recently become a very active and challenging area of image processing and analysis research and development, driven by an enormous clinical need to understand and treat a disease that affects some 5 million Americans alone, a number that is predicted to increase to almost 16 million by 2050. In this chapter we attempt to provide an overview of the large variety of imaging modalities and uses in the management and understanding of atrial fibrillation, with special emphasis on the most novel applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. To provide clinical and biomedical motivation, we outline the basics of the disease together with some contemporary hypotheses about its etiology and management. We then describe briefly the imaging modalities in common use in the management and research of AF, then focus on the use or MRI for all phases of the management of patients with AF and indicate some of the major engineering challenges that can motivate further progress. Keywords: ablation, carma, cvrti, 5P41-RR012553-10 |
Scientific Discovery at the Exascale: Report from the (DOE) (ASCR) 2011 Workshop on Exascale Data Management, Analysis, and Visualization S. Ahern, A. Shoshani, K.L. Ma, A. Choudhary, T. Critchlow, S. Klasky, V. Pascucci. Note: Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), January, 2011. DOI: 10.2172/1011053 |
Visualization of Covariance and Cross-covariance Field C. Yang, D. Xiu, R.M. Kirby. In International Journal for Uncertainty Quantification, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 25--38. 2011. DOI: 10.1615/Int.J.UncertaintyQuantification.2011003369 We present a numerical technique to visualize covariance and cross-covariance fields of a stochastic simulation. The method is local in the sense that it demonstrates the covariance structure of the solution at a point with its neighboring locations. When coupled with an efficient stochastic simulation solver, our framework allows one to effectively concurrently visualize both the mean and (cross-)covariance information for two-dimensional (spatial) simulation results. Most importantly, the visualization provides the scientist a means to identify interesting correlation structure of the solution field. The mathematical setup is discussed, along with several examples to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. Keywords: netl |
Consistent Approximation of Local Flow Behavior for 2D Vector Fields S. Jadhav, H. Bhatia, P.-T. Bremer, J.A. Levine, L.G. Nonato, V. Pascucci. In Mathematics and Visualization, Springer, pp. 141--159. Nov, 2011. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-23175-9 10 Typically, vector fields are stored as a set of sample vectors at discrete locations. Vector values at unsampled points are defined by interpolating some subset of the known sample values. In this work, we consider two-dimensional domains represented as triangular meshes with samples at all vertices, and vector values on the interior of each triangle are computed by piecewise linear interpolation. Many of the commonly used techniques for studying properties of the vector field require integration techniques that are prone to inconsistent results. Analysis based on such inconsistent results may lead to incorrect conclusions about the data. For example, vector field visualization techniques integrate the paths of massless particles (streamlines) in the flow or advect a texture using line integral convolution (LIC). Techniques like computation of the topological skeleton of a vector field, require integrating separatrices, which are streamlines that asymptotically bound regions where the flow behaves differently. Since these integrations may lead to compound numerical errors, the computed streamlines may intersect, violating some of their fundamental properties such as being pairwise disjoint. Detecting these computational artifacts to allow further analysis to proceed normally remains a significant challenge. |
Direct Isosurface Visualization of Hex-Based High-Order Geometry and Attribute Representations T. Martin, E. Cohen, R.M. Kirby. In IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), Vol. PP, No. 99, pp. 1--14. 2011. ISSN: 1077-2626 DOI: 10.1109/TVCG.2011.103 In this paper, we present a novel isosurface visualization technique that guarantees the accuarate visualization of isosurfaces with complex attribute data defined on (un-)structured (curvi-)linear hexahedral grids. Isosurfaces of high-order hexahedralbased finite element solutions on both uniform grids (including MRI and CT scans) and more complex geometry represent a domain of interest that can be rendered using our algorithm. Additionally, our technique can be used to directly visualize solutions and attributes in isogeometric analysis, an area based on trivariate high-order NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-splines) geometry and attribute representations for the analysis. Furthermore, our technique can be used to visualize isosurfaces of algebraic functions. Our approach combines subdivision and numerical root-finding to form a robust and efficient isosurface visualization algorithm that does not miss surface features, while finding all intersections between a view frustum and desired isosurfaces. This allows the use of view-independent transparency in the rendering process. We demonstrate our technique through a straightforward CPU implementation on both complexstructured and complex-unstructured geometry with high-order simulation solutions, isosurfaces of medical data sets, and isosurfaces of algebraic functions. |
Multi-Resolution-Display System for Virtual Reality Setups J. Grueninger, H. Hoffman, U. Kloos, J. Krüger. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 6779/2011, pp. 180--189. 2011. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-21716-6_19 Most large-area video projection systems offer only limited spacial resolution. Consequently, images of detailed scenery cannot be displayed at full fidelity. A possible but significantly more costly strategy is a tiled projection display. If this solution is not feasible then either aliasing occurs or some anti-aliasing method is used at the cost of reduced scene quality. In this paper we describe a novel cost effective multi-resolution display system. It allows users to select any part of a stereoscopic projection and view it in significantly higher resolution than possible with the standard projection alone. To achieve this, a pair of video projectors, which can be moved by stepper motors, project a high-resolution inset into a small portion of the low-resolution image. To avoid crosstalk between the low and high resolution projections, a mask is rendered into the low resolution scene to black out the area on the screen that is covered by the inlay. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our multi-resolution display setup it has been integrated into a number of real life scenarios: a virtual factory, an airplane cabin simulation, and a focus and context volume visualization application (see Figure 1). |